ESS-UNIT5

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#1. Who is considered the "father of computers" and is credited with designing the Analytical Engine, a mechanical general-purpose computer?

#2. The first electronic computer, completed in 1945 and used for calculating artillery firing tables during World War II, is:

#3. What does ENIAC stand for?

#4. The first programming language designed for electronic computers, introduced in the late 1950s, is:

#5. The stored program concept, where instructions are stored in memory along with data, was introduced by:

#6. In which generation of computers were transistors first used, marking a transition from vacuum tubes?

#7. The microprocessor, a single-chip CPU, was introduced in which generation of computers?

#8. ARPANET, the precursor to the internet, was developed in the late: (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), Its Precursor is DARPA

#9. The first widely recognized personal computer, released in 1977, was:

#10. Which programming language, developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s, became a foundational language for operating systems like Unix?

#11. The concept of virtual memory, allowing programs to use more memory than physically available, was first implemented in which generation of computers?

#12. The graphical user interface (GUI) was popularized by which computer system in the 1980s?

#13. The World Wide Web was proposed by:

#14. The open-source operating system developed by Linus Torvalds is known as:

#15. The concept of cloud computing became prominent in the:

#16. Which company introduced the first commercially successful microprocessor, the Intel 4004, in 1971?

#17. The development of the modern computer mouse is credited to:

#18. The first computer virus was discovered in the early:

#19. The programming language designed for creating web pages and web applications is:

#20. The term "bug," referring to a computer program error, originated when a moth caused a malfunction in the:

#21. The first successful electronic digital computer, developed during World War II, is:

#22. The programming language commonly used for artificial intelligence and machine learning is:

#23. The concept of open-source software promotes:

#24. The concept of Moore's Law by Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel Corporation (the number of transistors on a microchip would approximately double every two years) is associated with the exponential growth of:

#25. The term "byte" is a combination of:

#26. The programming language designed for system programming and high-performance computing is:

#27. The concept of the Turing machine is associated with the work of:

#28. The development of the first graphical web browser (developed by Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research)), Mosaic, occurred in the early:

#29. 31. The first successful personal computer with a graphical user interface and a mouse was the:

#30. The concept of the Turing test is used to evaluate:

#31. The development of the modern internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was funded by:

#32. The concept of the Von Neumann architecture involves the separation of:

#33. The first commercially successful personal Computer, released in 1975, was the:

#34. The concept of algorithmic complexity is associated with the work of:

#35. The development of the first web server and the World Wide Web was initiated at:

#36. 39. The concept of quantum computing involves the use of:

#37. 40. The programming language commonly used for building mobile applications is:

#38. 1. Which generation of computers used vacuum tubes for processing?

#39. 2. The introduction of which component marked the beginning of the second generation of computers?

#40. 3. Which programming languages were primarily used during the second generation of computers?

#41. 6. What is the primary feature of the fourth generation of computers?

#42. 7. Which generation of computers is associated with the development of personal computers (PCs)?

#43. 8. The concept of parallel processing, artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language processing are characteristics of which generation of computers?

#44. 10. The use of superconductors and advanced parallel processing is a feature of which generation of computers?

#45. 11. The first-generation computers were primarily used for:

#46. 12. The UNIVAC I, developed in the 1950s, is an example of a computer from which generation?

#47. 13. The concept of time-sharing operating systems was introduced in which generation of computers?

#48. 14. Which generation of computers saw the widespread use of mainframe computers in business and government?

#49. 15. The term "Moore's Law" is often associated with the rapid advancements in which generation of computers?

#50. 16. Which of the following is a characteristic of third-generation computers?

#51. 17. The development of the CRAY-1 supercomputer is associated with which generation of computers?

#52. 19. Which generation of computers is characterized by the use of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) technology?

#53. 21. The concept of artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems gained prominence in which generation of computers?

#54. 22. The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) is an example of a computer from which generation?

#55. 23. The transition from batch processing to time-sharing systems occurred in which generation of computers?

#56. 24. Which generation of computers is associated with the development of the ARPANET, the precursor to the internet?

#57. 25. The introduction of personal computers (PCs) with graphical user interfaces (GUIs) occurred in which generation?

#58. 26. The concept of distributed computing and networking became prominent in which generation of computers?

#59. 27. The development of RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) architectures is associated with which generation of computers?

#60. What is a computer?

#61. 2. The primary function of a computer is to:

#62. 3. In the context of computers, CPU stands for:

#63. 4. Which component of a computer is responsible for temporarily storing data for quick access by the CPU?

#64. 5. The block diagram of a computer typically includes components such as:

#65. 6. ALU in a computer stands for:

#66. 7. Which component of a computer stores the Firmware?

#67. 8. The control unit (CU) in a computer is responsible for:

#68. 9. The input devices in a computer system include:

#69. 10. What is the purpose of the output devices in a computer system?

#70. 11. Which component of a computer is responsible for managing data communication between different parts of the system?

#71. 12. The binary system, fundamental to computers, uses digits:

#72. 13. Which part of the computer is often referred to as the "brain" of the system?

#73. 14. The cache memory in a computer is located:

#74. 15. Which type of memory retains its data even when the power is turned off?

#75. 16. The process of fetching an instruction from memory and executing it is known as:

#76. 17. The motherboard in a computer houses:

#77. 18. The bus in a computer is used for:

#78. 19. Which programming language is often used for low-level programming close to hardware?

#79. 20. Which component of a computer is responsible for storing and retrieving data in a non-volatile form?

#80. 21. The clock speed of a CPU is measured in:

#81. 22. The process of converting data into a coded form to prevent unauthorized access is known as:

#82. 23. The concept of a GUI (Graphical User Interface) involves:

#83. 24. The term "booting" refers to:

#84. 25. Which of the following is a high-level programming language commonly used for web development?

#85. 26. The process of a computer system carrying out tasks without human intervention is known as:

#86. 27. Which component of a computer is responsible for managing and coordinating system resources?

#87. 28. The ASCII code is used for encoding:

#88. 29. Which type of memory is used for temporary storage of data during the execution of a program?

#89. 30. The process of converting data into a human-readable form is known as:

#90. 1. What does HTTP stand for?

#91. 2. Which protocol is used for secure communication over a computer network?

#92. 3. What is the primary purpose of DNS (Domain Name System)?

#93. 4. Which of the following is a top-level domain (TLD)?

#94. 5. What does the acronym URL stand for?

#95. 6. Which Internet service allows individuals and organizations to make their websites accessible on the World Wide Web?

#96. 7. What is the purpose of an IP address?

#97. 8. Which of the following is a common method of securing online communication by encrypting data between a user's browser and a website?

#98. 9. What is the purpose of a cookie in the context of web browsing?

#99. 10. Which Internet protocol is used for sending emails?

#100. 11. What does IoT stand for in the context of the Internet?

#101. 12. Which of the following is a commonly used web browser?

#102. 13. What is the purpose of a firewall in the context of computer networks?

#103. 14. Which Internet protocol is responsible for translating human-readable domain names into numerical IP addresses?

#104. 15. What does the acronym HTML stand for?

#105. 16. Which of the following is NOT a commonly used type of Internet connection?

#106. 17. What is the purpose of a search engine on the Internet?

#107. 18. Which Internet service allows users to retrieve and view web pages?

#108. 19. What is the purpose of the protocol SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)?

#109. 20. What does the acronym VPN stand for?

#110. 21. Which organization is responsible for assigning and managing IP addresses globally?

#111. 22. What is the purpose of a proxy server in the context of the Internet?

#112. 23. Which Internet service is commonly used for real-time communication through text messages?

#113. 24. What does the term "bandwidth" refer to in the context of Internet connections?

#114. 25. Which of the following is a common method of authenticating users on websites?

#115. 26. What is the purpose of the protocol DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)?

#116. 27. Which of the following is NOT a valid file transfer protocol used on the Internet?

#117. 28. What is the primary function of a router in a computer network?

#118. 29. What is the purpose of the protocol POP (Post Office Protocol)? Opposite is IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)

#119. 30. Which of the following is a security measure to protect against unauthorized access by encrypting data transmission?

#120. 1. When was the concept of the ARPANET, the precursor to the internet, first proposed by the United States Department of Defense?

#121. 2. In which year was the first successful message sent over the ARPANET, connecting computers at UCLA and Stanford Research Institute?

#122. 3. The term "internet" is derived from the words:

#123. 4. The protocol used for transferring files over the internet is:

#124. 5. The World Wide Web (WWW) was invented by:

#125. 6. The first graphical web browser, Mosaic, was developed in the early:

#126. 7. The organization responsible for assigning domain names and IP addresses is:

#127. 8. The transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is primarily due to:

#128. 9. The concept of e-commerce, buying and selling goods over the internet, gained popularity in the:

#129. 10. The first popular web search engine, launched in 1994, was:

#130. 11. The concept of social networking on the internet became widespread with the launch of:

#131. 12. The term "blog" is a contraction of:

#132. 13. The technology that enables the creation and exchange of digital currencies like Bitcoin is known as:

#133. 14. The first widely used web browser, released in 1993, was:

#134. 15. The concept of cloud computing involves:

#135. 16. The concept of net neutrality is related to:

#136. 17. The first email system allowing users to send messages across different computers was developed at:

#137. 18. The concept of Wi-Fi, allowing wireless internet connectivity, was standardized under the name:

#138. 19. The development of the internet as a global network was significantly accelerated by the introduction of:

#139. 20. The concept of the "Internet of Things" (IoT) refers to:

#140. 21. The first social media platform, launched in 1997, was:

#141. 22. The concept of a web browser cookie is used for:

#142. 23. The concept of online streaming of video content became popular with the launch of:

#143. 24. The organization that played a crucial role in the development of the internet, including the creation of the ARPANET, is:

#144. 25. The concept of a firewall is used for:

#145. 26. The first message sent over the ARPANET was intended to be "LOGIN," but it crashed after transmitting the first two letters. What were the transmitted letters?

#146. 27. The concept of the dark web refers to:

#147. 28. The concept of a podcast involves:

#148. 29. The first message sent over the ARPANET was between computers at:

#149. 30. The concept of geolocation on the internet involves:

#150. 4. The process of converting a domain name into its corresponding IP address is known as:

#151. 5. The internet protocol that allows devices on the same local network to obtain an IP address automatically is:

#152. 6. Which of the following is not a top-level domain (TLD)?

#153. 7. The internet browser developed by Mozilla is:

#154. 9. Which of the following is a valid IP address format?

#155. 10. The concept of "cookies" in web browsers is primarily used for:

#156. 11. The internet protocol responsible for email communication is:

#157. 12. The concept of a "firewall" in the context of computer networks is used for:

#158. 13. The standard port number for HTTP traffic is:

#159. 14. Which internet service allows files to be transferred between computers over the internet?

#160. 15. The protocol used for secure file transfer is:

#161. 16. The internet protocol used for real-time communication and video conferencing is:

#162. 17. The concept of "phishing" in internet security refers to:

#163. 18. The file format commonly used for web graphics with support for transparency is:

#164. 19. The internet standard that defines how email messages are formatted and transmitted is:

#165. 20. The concept of "bandwidth" (maximum data transfer rate of a network connection) in internet terms refers to:

#166. 21. The web protocol that allows for the secure transfer of hypertext content is denoted by:

#167. 22. The technology that enables a web page to dynamically update without requiring a full page reload is known as:

#168. 24. The internet standard for encrypting data transmission over a network is:

#169. 25. The term "IPV6" refers to the:

#170. 26. The concept of "cloud computing" involves:

#171. 27. The internet technology that allows web browsers to request and display content without reloading the entire page is known as:

#172. 28. The programming language commonly used for creating dynamic web pages is:

#173. 29. The technology that enables secure communication between a web browser and a server is:

#174. 30. The internet standard that defines the rules for transferring files between computers is:

#175. What type of network is formed by connecting computers within a limited geographic area, such as a university campus or a business office?

#176. 2. Which network type covers a larger geographical area and typically connects multiple LANs across different locations?

#177. 3. A network that spans a city or a large campus, providing connectivity for multiple LANs, is known as:

#178. 4. Which type of network is typically used for connecting devices within the range of an individual person, such as connecting a smartphone to a laptop?

#179. 5. The internet is an example of which type of network?

#180. 6. Which networking technology uses radio waves to provide wireless communication between devices within a limited area?

#181. 7. A network topology where each device is connected to a central hub or switch is known as:

#182. 8. In a ring topology, how are devices connected?

#183. 9. Which topology provides redundancy and multiple paths for data transmission between devices?

#184. 10. What is a disadvantage of a bus topology?

#185. 11. Which network protocol is commonly used for communication between devices on the internet?

#186. 12. The process of converting human-readable domain names into IP addresses is performed by:

#187. 13. Which network device operates at the Data Link layer of the OSI model and filters traffic based on MAC addresses?

#188. 14. A device that connects multiple network segments and operates at the Network layer of the OSI model is called a:

#189. 15. What is the purpose of a firewall in a network?

#190. 16. Which wireless networking standard is commonly used for short-range communication between devices, such as smartphones and smartwatches?

#191. 17. The technology that allows data to be transmitted over existing telephone lines is known as:

#192. 18. Which network service provides a centralized directory for storing and managing user account information?

#193. 19. The process of dividing a single IP network into multiple sub-networks is called:

#194. 20. What is the primary function of a router in a network?

#195. 21. Which type of IP address is used for communication within a local network and is not routable on the internet?

#196. 22. The protocol responsible for dynamically assigning IP addresses to devices on a network is:

#197. 23. Which networking component is responsible for converting digital data into analog signals for transmission over telephone lines?

#198. 24. Which of the following is a characteristic of a peer-to-peer network?

#199. 25. The technology that allows multiple users to share a common communication channel is known as:

#200. 26. Which network protocol is commonly used for secure communication over the internet, particularly for e-commerce websites?

#201. 27. The technology that enables users to access computing resources and services over the internet is known as:

#202. 28. Which networking concept involves duplicating data across multiple servers to improve reliability and performance?

#203. 29. The protocol used for secure file transfer over a network is:

#204. 30. The technology that allows devices to communicate and share data without human intervention is known as:

#205. 1. What does the acronym "IP" stand for in the context of networking?

#206. 2. In the IPv4 address format, how many bits are used to represent an IP address?

#207. 3. Which of the following is a private IP address range specified by RFC 1918?

#208. 5. What is the primary purpose of DNS in computer networks?

#209. 6. Which record type in the DNS is used to map domain names to IPv4 addresses?

#210. 7. What is the function of a DNS resolver?

#211. 8. The top-level domain (TL".org" is commonly associated with:

#212. 9. What is the purpose of the IPv6 protocol?

#213. 10. Which of the following is a valid IPv6 address format?

#214. 11. The process of resolving a domain name to an IP address is known as:

#215. 12. What is the purpose of the DNS root server?

#216. 13. Which protocol is commonly used for the secure transmission of data over the internet?

#217. 14. The process of dividing an IP network into subnetworks to improve performance and security is known as:

#218. 15. What is the purpose of the Reverse DNS (rDNS) lookup?

#219. 16. Which of the following is a valid IPv4 address?

#220. 17. The term "subnet mask" is used to:

#221. 18. The DNS record type "MX" is used for:

#222. 19. In an IPv6 address, how many groups of hexadecimal digits are separated by colons?

#223. 20. What is the primary purpose of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)?

#224. 21. The DNS record type "CNAME" (Canonical Name) is used for:

#225. 22. Which of the following is a reserved IP address commonly used for loopback testing?

#226. 23. What is the purpose of a DNS cache?

#227. 25. Which of the following is a top-level domain (TLused for educational institutions?

#228. 26. The DNS record type "NS"( Name Server) is used for:

#229. 27. What is the purpose of the "ping" command in networking?

#230. 28. The process of translating a private IP address to a public IP address, typically used in home routers, is known as:

#231. 29. The DNS record type "TXT" is commonly used for:

#232. 30. Which of the following is an example of a fully qualified domain name (FQDN)?

#233. 1. What term refers to the idea that individuals have the right to control their personal information and how it is collected and used online?

#234. 2. The practice of deliberately spreading false information with the intent to deceive, often through social media, is known as:

#235. 3. Which ethical concept emphasizes the responsible and fair use of information and communication technologies?

#236. 4. The term "digital divide" refers to:

#237. 5. What is the term for the practice of using technology to track and monitor individuals' online activities without their consent?

#238. 6. Which of the following is an example of a potential negative impact of social media on mental health?

#239. 7. The ethical principle that advocates for equal access to the internet and online content for all users is known as:

#240. 8. The term "phishing" refers to:

#241. 9. What is the primary concern associated with the concept of "filter bubbles" on social media platforms?

#242. 10. The unauthorized access, use, or manipulation of computer systems or data for malicious purposes is known as:

#243. 11. What is the term for the phenomenon where online platforms use algorithms to tailor content to a user's preferences, limiting exposure to diverse viewpoints?

#244. 12. The concept of "net neutrality" advocates for:

#245. 13. Which ethical concern is related to the idea of digital rights management (DRM) and the balance between copyright protection and user access to digital content?

#246. 14. The practice of using technology to gather and analyze large sets of data about individuals' behavior, preferences, and activities is known as:

#247. 15. The term "cybersecurity" refers to:

#248. 16. What term describes the act of using someone else's work or ideas without giving proper credit, particularly prevalent in online content creation?

#249. 17. The ethical principle that promotes the sharing and collaborative development of software without restrictions is known as:

#250. 18. The idea that governments or authorities may restrict access to certain websites or online content is associated with:

#251. 19. What ethical concept emphasizes the responsible and equitable use of technology to bridge the gap between those who have access to information and those who do not?

#252. 20. The term "encryption" refers to:

#253. 21. The ethical dilemma of balancing national security and individual privacy is often associated with issues related to:

#254. 22. What term describes the act of intentionally and repeatedly using technology to harass, threaten, or intimidate others?

#255. 23. The practice of individuals or organizations strategically manipulating online content and conversations to shape public opinion is known as:

#256. 24. The ethical principle that advocates for transparent and open access to information and knowledge is known as:

#257. 25. What term describes the act of using social engineering techniques to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information, often through fraudulent emails?

#258. 26. The concept of "social engineering" in the context of cybersecurity refers to:

#259. 27. The ethical dilemma associated with the collection and use of personal data by companies for targeted advertising and profiling is often referred to as:

#260. 28. The ethical concept that focuses on the responsible and accountable use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is known as:

#261. 29. What is the term for the act of using technology to alter or manipulate visual or audio content to deceive or mislead viewers?

#262. 30. The ethical concern related to the monopolistic power of certain tech companies and their impact on competition and innovation is often referred to as:

#263. 1. What does VPN stand for, providing a secure way to connect to a private network over the internet?

#264. 2. Which protocol is commonly used for secure communication over a computer network, ensuring data integrity and confidentiality?

#265. 3. The process of converting plaintext into unreadable gibberish to secure data transmission is called:

#266. 4. Which type of attack involves an attacker intercepting communication between two parties without their knowledge?

#267. 5. In networking, what does the term "firewall" refer to?

#268. 6. The IP address 127.0.0.1 is reserved for:

#269. 7. Which encryption protocol is commonly used to secure wireless networks?

#270. 8. What is the purpose of DNS (Domain Name System) in networking?

#271. 9. Which of the following is an example of a strong password?

#272. 10. What is the role of a router in a network?

#273. 11. Which of the following is a common authentication factor?

#274. 12. What does the acronym HTTPS stand for in the context of web browsing?

#275. 13. A DDoS attack aims to:

#276. 14. What is the purpose of an SSL certificate on a website?

#277. 15. Which protocol is used for sending and receiving emails?

#278. 16. What is the purpose of NAT (Network Address Translation) in networking?

#279. 17. Which of the following is a common method to prevent unauthorized access to a network?

#280. 18. What is the primary purpose of a proxy server in a network?

#281. 19. Which encryption algorithm is commonly used for secure data transmission over the internet?

#282. 20. What is a phishing attack?

#283. 21. What is the purpose of a subnet mask in networking?

#284. 22. Which of the following is a common security measure to protect against malware?

#285. 23. What is a VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) used for in networking?

#286. 24. Which protocol is commonly used for secure file transfer over a network?

#287. 25. What does ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) primarily handle?

#288. 26. Which of the following is a common method of encrypting wireless network traffic?

#289. 27. The concept of "pharming" is related to:

#290. 28. What is the purpose of a MAC address in networking?

#291. 29. Which of the following is a common type of social engineering attack?

#292. 30. What is the role of an intrusion detection system (IDS) in network security?

#293. 1. What term refers to the protection of information systems against unauthorized access, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction?

#294. 2. Which of the following is a common method for ensuring the confidentiality of sensitive information during transmission over the internet?

#295. 3. The process of converting plaintext into ciphertext to secure data is known as:

#296. 4. What is the primary purpose of a firewall in the context of internet security?

#297. 5. Two-factor authentication typically involves the combination of:

#298. 5.1 Which of the following combinations is typically used in Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)?

#299. 6. Which type of malware disguises itself as legitimate software but carries out malicious activities without the user's knowledge?

#300. 7. In the context of internet security, what does the term "phishing" refer to?

#301. 8. The process of verifying the identity of a user, system, or application is called:

#302. 9. Which cryptographic algorithm is commonly used for secure communication over the internet, providing confidentiality and integrity?

#303. 10. What is the purpose of a Virtual Private Network (VPN) in the context of internet security?

#304. 11. The term "zero-day vulnerability" refers to:

#305. 12. What is the primary goal of access control in information security?

#306. 13. Which security measure involves encoding information to make it unreadable without the appropriate decryption key?

#307. 14. A security token, such as a smart card or hardware token, is an example of:

#308. 15. What is the purpose of an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in the context of internet security?

#309. 16. The process of ensuring that data is not altered or tampered with during transmission or storage is known as:

#310. 17. Which of the following is a best practice for password security?

#311. 18. What is the primary purpose of a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate on a website?

#312. 19. The term "denial of service" (DoS) refers to:

#313. 20. The concept of "least privilege" in access control involves: